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Comprehensive Guide On Python

A Comprehensive Guide On Python

Python is a popular Programming Language for a wide range of purposes, such as Web Development, Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and more. Thanks to its simple and elegant syntax, it’s easy to learn, write, and read. It also has a rich set of libraries and frameworks to help you accomplish your tasks faster and more easily. In this post, you’ll learn Python’s basics, such as syntax, data types, functions, loops, etc. Whether you’re new to programming or want to refresh your knowledge, this post is for you. 

What is Python?

Python is a Programming Language created by Guido van Rossum and released in 1991. It has a simple and elegant syntax that emphasizes code readability and supports multiple programming paradigms, such as Object-Oriented, procedural, functional, and structured programming. It's a high-level, interpreted, dynamic, and garbage-collected language that can run on many platforms, such as Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, and more. Thanks to its comprehensive standard library, many describe Python as a "batteries included" language.

Python Basic Syntax and Rules

1. Free and Open-Source. Python is a highly accessible programming language available for free to download, use, and share. Furthermore, it boasts an Open-Source License that allows anyone to modify and distribute its source code.

2. Learning Curve. It has a clear syntax, making writing and reading code easy. Its code structure is all about indentation, a unique feature that uses brackets or semicolons to define code blocks. Using indentation in Python improves code readability, making it easy for developers to understand the code and modify it in the future.

3. Object-Oriented. Supporting Object-oriented programming means that Python allows the creation of classes and objects that can encapsulate data and behavior. It also supports multiple inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction.

4. Large Library. Being a comprehensive standard library, it provides various modules and packages for multiple tasks, such as file handling, Web Development, data processing, networking, etc. Python also has a repository of third-party packages called PyPI (Python Package Index) that offers additional functionality.

5. Portable and Integrated. It’s a portable language that can run on different platforms without changes. Python can also be integrated with other languages, such as C, C++, and Java, using various methods, such as ctypes, SWIG, Jython, etc.

5. GUI Programming Support. Its User Interface (GUI) uses modules such as Tkinter, PyQt, wxPython, etc., to create interactive and user-friendly applications with Python.

Python Data Types and Operators

Some of the common data types and operators in Python are:

Python Numeric Data Types

You can work with three different types of numbers: integers, floating-point numbers, and complex numbers. Each type represents a different kind of numeric value that offers a range of arithmetic operators, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus, exponentiation, and floor division, that allow you to perform calculations with these numeric values.

Python String Data Types

The str data type stores text or sequences of characters, and you can define them by using single quotes (' ') or double quotes (" "); they're very flexible and manipulable with string operators. For example, the + operator concatenates two or more strings, while you can use the * operator to repeat a string many times. Overall, strings are an essential data type in Python and are used extensively in various applications.

Python List Data Types

List data type stores ordered collections of values with different styles. You can use brackets ([ ]) to create them and several methods to modify, append, delete, or sort them. Python also supports various list operators, such as +, *, in, and not in, to perform operations on lists.

Python Tuple Data Types

Tuples store ordered collections of immutable values, meaning you cannot modify them after creating them with parentheses or commas. You can use Tuples to store related pieces of information together as a single unit, such as coordinates, dates, and phone numbers. Additionally, tuples are more memory-efficient than lists, as they take up less space in the memory.

Python Dictionary and Set Data Types

Dict data type stores unordered collections of mutable key-value pairs, meaning unlike immutable values, they can change after creation. Dictionaries happen using braces { } or the dict ( ) constructor. On the other hand, set data type stores unordered collections of mutable unique values. These sets can happen using braces { } or the set( ), and Python supports multiple set operators, such as |, &,-, and ^, to perform union, intersection, difference, and symmetric difference operations on sets.

What is a Function in Python?

Functions are important in Python because they let you write code that can do specific tasks or operations repeatedly. You can give inputs, called arguments or parameters, to functions and get outputs, called results or return values. That can help make your code easier to read, debug, and maintain. You can create a function using the def keyword by typing the function name followed by parentheses. Python has different types of functions, like built-in ones, user-defined ones, anonymous ones, and recursive ones.

How to Set Up a Python Environment?

There are different ways to install and set up your Python environment. However, here are some general steps that you can follow:

1. Checking. Check if you already have Python installed on your system by typing python --version or python3 --version in your terminal or command prompt. The majority of the systems have Python installed by default. If you see a version number, then you have Python installed. Otherwise, you must download and install it from the official website.

2. Method. Choose a method to manage multiple versions of Python on your system. That is useful for working with projects requiring different Python versions or libraries. Some common methods are pyenv, virtualenv, venv, and conda.

3. Environment. Create a virtual environment for your project using the method of your choice. A virtual environment is a way to isolate your project from the Python system and its modules. That allows you to install the specific packages and dependencies that your project needs without affecting other projects or the Python system.

4. Activation. Activate your virtual environment and install the packages using pip or another package manager. You can also create a requirements.txt file that lists all the packages and their versions that your project depends on. That makes it easier for other developers to replicate your environment.

5. Code Editor. Set up your chosen code editor or Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Many options are available, such as VS Code, PyCharm, Sublime Text, etc. You can configure your editor to work with your virtual environment and use features such as syntax highlighting, code completion, debugging, etc.

6. Code Running. Write and run your Python code using your editor or the terminal. You can also use tools like Jupyter Notebook or Google Colab to write and execute Python code interactively in a web browser.

How to Define Functions in Python?

Using functions in Python enables us to write code that can work in different contexts. When called, a function executes a specific task defined by its code block. To make a function in Python, you use the def keyword and give it a name and ( ). If your function needs any information, put it inside the ( ). Then, you write the code that you want your function to do. You can use the return keyword to give a value back from your function. Here's an example of a simple function that adds two numbers together:

def add (x, y):
 # This is a docstring that explains what the function does
 # Returns the sum of x and y

result = x + y
return result

To call a function in Python, you use the function's name followed by parentheses ( ). If the function takes any arguments, you pass them inside the parentheses. You can assign the function's return value to a variable or use it in an expression. For example, here is how to call the add function defined above:

# Assigning the return value to a variable
z = add(3, 5)
print(z) # 8
# Using the return value in an expression

print(add(2, 4) * 2) # 12

How Does Handling Errors Work in Python?

An exception is an error that occurs during the execution of a program and interrupts its normal flow. Exceptions can be caused by various reasons, such as invalid input, division by zero, file not found, etc, and you can handled them by using the try-except block, which allows you to catch and handle the exception without terminating the program. The simple syntax of the try-except block is:

 # code that may raise an exception
except ExceptionType as e:
 # code that handles the exception

The try clause contains the code that may raise an exception, and the except clause specifies the type of exception to catch and a variable name to store the exception object. The except clause executes when the try clause raises an exception of the specified type. You can also use multiple except clauses to handle different exceptions or use a generic except clause to catch any exception. For example:

num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
print(10 / num)
except ValueError as e:
print("Invalid input:", e)
except ZeroDivisionError as e:
print("Cannot divide by zero:", e)
except Exception as e:
print("Something went wrong:",

This code tries to get a number from the user and print the result of dividing 10 by that number. If the user enters a non-numeric input, a ValueError is raised and handled by printing “Invalid input”. If the user enters zero, a ZeroDivisionError is raised and handled by printing “Cannot divide by zero”. If any other exception occurs, it is caught by the generic except clause and handled by printing “Something went wrong”.


As you can see, Python is a powerful and versatile programming language with many advantages and applications, used in stacks such as LAMP. Whether you are a beginner or an expert, a hobbyist or a professional, Python can help you and your development team achieve your goals and solve your problems. Python is a language and a community of passionate and supportive developers who are always ready to share their knowledge and experience. Python is fun, easy, and rewarding. What are you waiting for? Start coding with Python today!